Considered to be the hardest and the strongest stone in the world, diamonds are mainly composed of carbon. Their rarity and beauty confirm their prestige. The most famous diamonds are the 45-carat Hope diamond, the mythical Kohlm-I-Noor and the 546 carat Golden Jubilee.
The formation of diamonds dates back to the first stages of earth exploitation, that is to say back to 4.5 billion years ago. Discovered through volcanic eruptions, diamonds are then housed in kimberlite pipes where they are altered then dispersed by rivers.
The use of diamond dates back to antiquity, it was used as a tool to cut out some gems like Lazulite and Carnelian. The Greeks thought that the diamond came from the splinters of stars that had fallen o earth.
Diamond is known to be the most resistant mineral of the earth, with a hardness of 10 on the Mohs scale, which measures the hardness of gems. It is also the best thermal conductor.
Diamond is the only mineral in the world to reflect that much light and sparkle. Diamond may return up to 100% of the incident light in the direction from which it came from.
Its value depends on its size, color, clarity, weight and especially on its rarity. This last point is important, because it is very difficult to extract large quantities of diamonds from the same rock. Weight is an important criterion to judge its value. A two-carat stone will be worth more than two stones of one carat.